WHAT IS A COMATOSE PATIENT?
A comatose person is alive but unconscious, responsive, and unaware of his surroundings. Comatose patients go into a state of deep unconsciousness. They can’t be woken up. Usually, direct or indirect brain damage can cause a coma. A comatose patient has minimal brain activity and is unable to move, feel or respond normally. Their involuntary actions work normally however, they become restrained from performing any voluntary task. Coma can be a prolonged state. In some cases, patients start to regain consciousness after a few weeks. However, in other cases, coma can be enduring and sometimes, life-long. Moreover, under certain circumstances recovering from a coma can cause other disabilities to arise due to excessive brain damage. In this case, the patient might require physiotherapy, occupational therapy, or psychological assessment and care for the rest of their lives.
CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS OF COMA:
As mentioned before, a direct or indirect injury or damage to the brain can cause a coma. Following conditions can cause injuries of the brain that follows up with a coma,
- Increased pressure
- Excessive bleeding
- Loss of oxygen
- Toxin build-up
- Drug/ alcohol overdose
Apart from this, other medical conditions can play a vital role in inducing a coma. Disturbances in the brain or trauma are one of the most common conditions that lead up to a coma.
Medical conditions such as Anoxic brain injury, blood sugar levels, infections, stroke, seizures, and oxygen deprivation can also cause comas. Bleeding in the brain can also cause a coma since it increases swelling in the brain and compresses the injured part of the brain. High blood pressure, tumors, and cerebral aneurysms can be the reason for bleeding in the brain.
The most common symptoms of coma include closed eyes, depressed brainstem reflexes; including pupils of eyes not responding to light, zero limb movements, or response to painful stimuli except for reflex movements and irregular breathing.
TYPES OF COMAS:
Comas can be divided into three types; Toxic Metabolic encephalopathy, Persistent vegetative state, and medically induced comas.
- Toxic Metabolic encephalopathy: In this type of coma a person may go through confusion and delirium. This is an acute condition of brain dysfunctionality, however; it can be reversible. Infections, systematic illness, organ failures, and other such conditions cause Toxic Metabolic encephalopathy.
- Persistent vegetative state: in this type of coma, a person becomes completely unconscious and unaware of his surroundings. The person fails to perform any voluntary task or movement. However, in some cases, patients with a Persistent vegetative state can progress to waking up without any other progressive higher brain functionality.
- Medically induced comas: patients who undergo a severe injury or brain damage can be given a temporary state of deep unconsciousness through a controlled anesthetic dose, to protect the brain from swelling. This happens under intensive care units only.
TAKING CARE OF A COMATOSE PATIENT AT HOME:
Comatose patients require a lot of medical care and attention. Most of the time, the patients are hospitalized and given 24-hour care at the hospital. since the medical attendants and professional doctors are highly qualified in taking care of a coma patient. Coma is treated according to the reason that triggered a coma. Therefore, different types of comas have different treatments.
Furthermore, coma patients can also be treated and taken care of at home. Specialized and professional ICU-trained nurses at home provide the medical care and services required to take care of a coma patient. These nurses provide a hospital-like environment in the house with every piece of equipment needed for proper medical care. The equipment required at home for medical care of a comatose patient includes:
- Hospital bed
- Cardiac monitor
- Ventilator (in case of breathing issues)
- Foley Catheter
- Ryle’s tube
- PEG tube
- IV line
- IV fluids
WHERE TO FIND ICU-TRAINED NURSES IN KARACHI?
“Holistic Healthcare Services” is one of the most reliable and trustworthy medical care service companies that provide at-home ICU-trained nurses. Their services are affordable and efficient providing maximum results during every treatment. They also provide other services such as physiotherapy, speech therapy, medical attendants, caregivers, and more at home.